Tomsk is a regional center of Tomsk region with a population of 560.5 thousand people. It’s located in Western Siberia, on the right bank of the Tom River in 3.5 thousand kilometers from Moscow.
Tomsk was found in 1640 by decree of Boris Godunov as a military fortress. All the XVII century Tomsk had been the most important military center and ensured safety of eastern borders of Russia.
In XVIII century borders of state were removed to the South and East, Tomsk lost its strategic importance till the middle of XX and became the place of exile.
Ibrahim Hannibal (Arap of Peter the Great), Gabriel Batenkov (Decembrist), Mikhail Bakunin (one of the ideologues of anarchism), Nikolai Erdman (playwright), Nikolai Klyuev (poet) were exiled here in different years. In 1708, after the formation of the Siberian province, Tomsk became a district town.
Soon, Siberian path became the foundation of urban life (it was built in 1728), connecting the center of Russia with its eastern edge. Due to this, chauffeuring and trading had become a main source of income for citizens.
In 1804 city was a big center of Tomsk province, which included territories of nowadays Altay Republic, Altay territory, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk and Tomsk regions, East Kazakhstan region (Kazakhstan), the western part of Khakassia and Krasnoyarsk Area.
The rapid growth of Tomsk began in the late 1830s, after the discovery and development of gold mines in the province of Tomsk. The development of the gold had concentrated a big capital in Tomsk, what revitalized Siberian merchants. The first Siberian Commodity Exchange opened in 1901.
By the end of the XIX century, Tomsk became the most populous city in Siberia, and by the beginning of World War II Tomsk was one of the 20 largest cities of country.
In the end of XIX century the first Asia-Russian institutes of higher education opened in Tomsk. Imperial University and the Institute of Technology, Siberian Advanced Women Courses, secondary general education and professional schools were opened in early XX.
Building of Trans-Siberian Railway the end of XIX century come Tomsk by, what negatively affected on the further economic development. Remained in the transport impasse, Tomsk conceded in economic and industrial growth.
The Soviet government was proclaimed in Tomsk in the 6th (19) of December, 1917. In the 26th of January (February 8) 1918 Tomsk city council disbanded the Siberian Regional Duma. As a result of the revolt of the Czechoslovak Corps in May 31, 1918 Tomsk came under the power of the White Guards, but in December 22 (1919), the Red Army finally established Soviet government in the city.
After the revolution Tomsk lost gubernatorial status. For the first time, the city was a part of Siberian, then – of the West-Siberian region.
In 1937 Tomsk with all included territories became a part of Novosibirsk region. Period from 1918 till the 1944 was the time of serious losing of power and regional status, huge reduction of population in growing Novosibirsk and other cities happened.
Administrative and economic situation in Tomsk changed in the Great Patriotic War. Here were evacuated about 30 enterprises from the European part of Russia, it became the basic of the city's industry: during the war the volume of industrial production in Tomsk had tripled.
Changed the administrative status – in the 13th of August 1944 Tomsk region with center was formed.
1960 year got a new impetus of development: Educational Complex, defense production, military electronics were developing, closed enterprise of Soviet atomic project appeared ( Seversk); agro-industries were opened around the city, a strong base of construction industry enterprises was created.
In May 1970, in Russian Federation was approved the first list of historical towns and villages, in which Tomsk was included. The rest monuments of wooden architecture, which were built in the end of XIX century played a big role in fact. But the restriction of foreigners in visiting the city, due to the presence of military production, was maintained until the Reconstruction period.
Nowadays Tomsk is one of the country's largest research and education center. Eight universities, 11 research institutes, five business incubators are concentrated here.
In accordance with the Government Resolution dated 21.12.2005 a special economic zone (SEZ) of technical innovation type was built in Tomsk.
Currently, more than 60 residents are registered in the SEZ. In 2013 they produced goods passing through customs procedures on 10.2 million dollars (growth - 27%).
More than 25,000 companies and organizations, 11.7 thousands of small businesses, more than 3 thousand malls and shops, more than 80 schools and high schools, 60 cultural and recreational facilities work in Tomsk.